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As of the census of , there were , people, 56, households, and 36, families living in the city. The population density is 3, There were 60, housing units at an average density of 1, According to the US Census, The racial makeup of the city was A large increase in persons with Russian or Ukrainian as their primary language has occurred.
There were 56, households, out of which In the city, the population was spread out, with The median age was 33 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The Vancouver economy is characterized by border economics with neighboring Portland, Oregon.
The state of Washington levies no individual or corporate income taxes and levies a property tax below the national average and a sales tax above the national median. For the same reasons, the city is popular with retirees. Conversely, the city is less favored by students and young adults. There is a risk in sales tax avoidance because Washington has a use tax due on all purchases made in Oregon that are then returned to Washington. Vancouver residents “shop at their own risk” when attempting to avoid the sales tax in Washington, although the rule is rarely, if ever, enforced [ citation needed ] except for purchases requiring registration, such as motor vehicles.
The taxation and demographics of the area depresses the retail sector of Vancouver’s economy. The voting base also led to rejection of extension of Portland’s light-rail system into the city for several years. The economic history of Vancouver reflects the region. Moving from a salmon- and trade-based indigenous economy by the Chinook people, the Hudson’s Bay Company pioneered extractive industries such as the fur trade and timber.
Subsistence agricultural gave way to market and export crops such as apples, strawberries and prunes. Largely bypassed by the railroad in the s, when the Oregon Steam Navigation company would ferry trains across the river downstream from St. Helens, Oregon to Kalama, Washington , early downtown development was focused around Washington Street where ferries arrived , lumber and Vancouver Barracks activities such as a large spruce mill for manufacturing airplanes.
A railroad swing bridge across the Columbia allowed greater industrial developments such as the Standifer Shipyard during the first world war. As the old-growth forests were depleted and heavy industry left the United States, Vancouver’s economy largely changed to high tech and service industry jobs, with many residents commuting to Portland. Vancouver contains the corporate headquarters for Nautilus, Inc. It handles over ocean-going vessels annually, as well as a number of barges which ply the river and its tributaries as far as Lewiston, Idaho.
According to the City’s Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,  the largest employers in the city are:. In , the city of Vancouver decided to dedicate the next 15—20 years to redeveloping and revitalizing the downtown core, west of I-5 and south of Evergreen Boulevard. The first projects started in the early s with the construction of many tall condominium structures around Esther Short Park. The most lauded outside investment was the construction of a Hilton hotel directly across from the park.
Numerous projects began to rise up around the city core and as of mid more than three dozen projects with mid-rise or high-rise structures were completed, under construction, or proposed. The site had been inaccessible to the public for more than years. The Redevelopment of Terminal One master plan was approved by the city council in A public open-air market is also planned.
The Columbian newspaper finished building a new seven-story building adjacent to the Hilton in Early in , The Columbian filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and the building defaulted to Bank of America.
In June , the City of Vancouver agreed to purchase the former downtown Columbian office building for use as a new city hall. The city bought the two-year-old building and 5.
In , the city consolidated five separate buildings housing employees into the new building, located at W. Future plans on C Street include a new Marriott hotel and roughly new condominiums. Significant urban scale development since in the Vancouver Downtown area visually changed the city skyline. In the early s, Vancouver began seeing a revitalization of the local arts scene and cultural events. In there was a movement among local artists to form cooperatives and meet with established local gallery owners for a monthly forum known as “Art Conversations”.
Many of Vancouver’s art galleries are located in downtown Vancouver, and in , the City Council formally designated an “Arts District” in the downtown core.
It was named for J. Kiggins, an entrepreneur and politician who cut a swath through town in the early 20th century, serving as Vancouver’s mayor for 15 non-consecutive years between and It was renovated and reopened in as an independent film and community event venue.
The Vancouver Symphony Orchestra first formed in the late s. Conducted and directed by Dr. Salvadore Brotons, the Symphony regularly performs concerts. Since the mids, Vancouver hosted a Fourth of July fireworks display on the grounds of Fort Vancouver National Historic Site that draws many people to the city. The display routinely ran to 45 minutes, attracted up to 60, visitors and was broadcast on area television, one of the largest west of the Mississippi River.
Due to the death of key organizer “Mister Fireworks” Jim Larson and a poor economy , the show was not held in Started in by “Aunty” Deva Yamashiro, a hula dancer and self-appointed cultural ambassador for Hawaii, the festival features live music, dance performances, craft workshops, and a celebration of Hawaiian food, arts, and culture. Late August features the Vancouver Wine and Jazz Festival in Esther Short Park, which brought 13, attendees in and which is considered the largest jazz festival in the Pacific Northwest.
Mother Joseph was one of the first architects in the region, and because of its relatively long history, Vancouver contains a variety of buildings. Many of these buildings have been repurposed. The Slocum House, an Italianate villa-style residence originally built one block south of its current location in Esther Short Park , was moved to its present location in and now houses a winery and art gallery. Other buildings have been torn down for urban renewal or renovated to house professional offices for lawyers and accountants.
Vancouver Public Schools’ elementary schools include Sarah J. Vancouver is located within the Portland media market for print, radio, and television media. It does, however, serve as the hometown for some media, including:. Vancouver has two interstate freeways, I-5 and I , both of which run north—south, across the Columbia River into Portland and toward Seattle.
It also has two heavily travelled state highways within the city limits. SR 14 begins at I-5 in downtown Vancouver and makes its way east. It is a freeway all the way until Camas. SR begins from I-5 at 39th Street in north Vancouver, travels east connecting with I, and continues east into the suburb of Orchards where the freeway terminates at Fourth Plain Boulevard, and meets with the south end of north—south-oriented th Ave.
A third state highway, SR , starts at I-5 and heads west through downtown and continues along a path that runs between the Columbia River and Vancouver Lake. There are also a number of express routes into Portland’s downtown. This extension of the MAX system opened in as the Yellow Line ,  running as far north as the Portland Expo Center , approximately 1 mile 2 km south of downtown Vancouver.
Vancouver voters have rejected light rail operations monies in connection with the Columbia River Crossing proposal. Amtrak , the national passenger rail system, provides service to Vancouver Station. Pearson Field , located near downtown Vancouver, is the main airport serving the city.
The airport is intended primarily for general aviation without any commercial air service. In , Vancouver passed a citywide law requiring anyone on a wheeled device such as a bicycle, skateboard, scooter or skates to wear a helmet while on any sidewalk, street, trail or other public property.
Many local cyclists opposed the law as a misuse of city funds and police efforts, as well as encroachment on personal freedoms. Despite opposition from the public, the Vancouver City Council passed the measure 5—1 with then Mayor Royce Pollard saying, ” I support this. Vancouver has one sister city: . Vancouver previously had a sister-city relationship with Arequipa , Peru , between and , but that relationship ended.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. City in US State of Washington. This article is about the U. For the city in Canada, see Vancouver. For other uses, see Vancouver disambiguation. City in Washington, United States. Location in Washington. This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events.
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Main article: List of people from Vancouver, Washington. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved August 7, Explore Census Data. Retrieved June 13, June 8, United States Geological Survey. October 25, Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved January 31, City of Vancouver.
Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved July 12, They are most common in Northern , Western and Central Europe. The green color is caused by the combination of: 1 an amber or light brown pigmentation in the stroma of the iris which has a low or moderate concentration of melanin with: 2 a blue shade created by the Rayleigh scattering of reflected light.
There is no blue pigmentation either in the iris or in the ocular fluid. Dissection reveals that the iris pigment epithelium is brownish black due to the presence of melanin. Longer wavelengths of light tend to be absorbed by the dark underlying epithelium, while shorter wavelengths are reflected and undergo Rayleigh scattering in the turbid medium of the stroma.
In humans, the inheritance pattern followed by blue eyes is considered similar to that of a recessive trait in general, eye color inheritance is considered a polygenic trait , meaning that it is controlled by the interactions of several genes, not just one.
Blue eyes are common in northern and eastern Europe, particularly around the Baltic Sea. A Birman kitten with distinctive sapphire blue eyes. The first blue-eyed koala known to be born in captivity .
The same DNA sequence in the region of the OCA2 gene among blue-eyed people suggests they may have a single common ancestor. As of [update] , the earliest remains of Homo sapiens with genes for both light complexion and blue eyes were found in 7, years old Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from Motala , Sweden. Blue eyes are continuing to become less common among American children. Like blue eyes, gray eyes have a dark epithelium at the back of the iris and a relatively clear stroma at the front.
One possible explanation for the difference in the appearance of gray and blue eyes is that gray eyes have larger deposits of collagen in the stroma, so that the light that is reflected from the epithelium undergoes Mie scattering which is not strongly frequency-dependent rather than Rayleigh scattering in which shorter wavelengths of light are scattered more.
This would be analogous to the change in the color of the sky, from the blue given by the Rayleigh scattering of sunlight by small gas molecules when the sky is clear, to the gray caused by Mie scattering of large water droplets when the sky is cloudy. The eyes of people with severe forms of albinism may appear red under certain lighting conditions owing to the extremely low quantities of melanin ,  allowing the blood vessels to show through. In addition, flash photography can sometimes cause a ” red-eye effect “, in which the very bright light from a flash reflects off the retina, which is abundantly vascular, causing the pupil to appear red in the photograph.
Although the deep blue eyes of some people such as Elizabeth Taylor can appear purple or violet at certain times, “true” violet-colored eyes occur only due to albinism.
As a result of heterochromia iridum , it is also possible to have two different eye colors. This occurs in humans and certain breeds of domesticated animals and affects less than 1 percent of the world’s population. Those with lighter iris color have been found to have a higher prevalence of age-related macular degeneration ARMD than those with darker iris color;  lighter eye color is also associated with an increased risk of ARMD progression. Wilson’s disease involves a mutation of the gene coding for the enzyme ATPase 7B , which prevents copper within the liver from entering the Golgi apparatus in cells.
Instead, the copper accumulates in the liver and in other tissues, including the iris of the eye. This results in the formation of Kayser—Fleischer rings , which are dark rings that encircle the periphery of the iris. Eye color outside of the iris may also be symptomatic of disease. Yellowing of the sclera the “whites of the eyes” is associated with jaundice ,  and may be symptomatic of liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis. Aniridia is a congenital condition characterized by an extremely underdeveloped iris, which appears absent on superficial examination.
Normally, there is a thick layer of melanin on the back of the iris. Even people with the lightest blue eyes, with no melanin on the front of the iris at all, have dark brown coloration on the back of it, to prevent light from scattering around inside the eye. In those with milder forms of albinism , the color of the iris is typically blue but can vary from blue to brown. In severe forms of albinism, there is no pigment on the back of the iris, and light from inside the eye can pass through the iris to the front.
In these cases, the only color seen is the red from the hemoglobin of the blood in the capillaries of the iris. Such albinos have pink eyes, as do albino rabbits, mice, or any other animal with a total lack of melanin. Transillumination defects can almost always be observed during an eye examination due to lack of iridial pigmentation.
Because of this, the pupillary reflex is much more pronounced in albino individuals, and this can emphasize the red eye effect in photographs. Heterochromia heterochromia iridum or heterochromia iridis is an eye condition in which one iris is a different color from the other complete heterochromia , or where a part of one iris is a different color from the remainder partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia. It is a result of the relative excess or lack of pigment within an iris or part of an iris, which may be inherited or acquired by disease or injury.
A number of causes are responsible, including genetic, such as chimerism , Horner’s syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome. A chimera can have two different colored eyes just like any two siblings can—because each cell has different eye color genes. A mosaic can have two different colored eyes if the DNA difference happens to be in an eye-color gene.
There are many other possible reasons for having two different-colored eyes. For example, the film actor Lee Van Cleef was born with one blue eye and one green eye, a trait that reportedly was common in his family, suggesting that it was a genetic trait.
This anomaly, which film producers thought would be disturbing to film audiences, was “corrected” by having Van Cleef wear brown contact lenses. Another hypothesis about heterochromia is that it can result from a viral infection in utero affecting the development of one eye, possibly through some sort of genetic mutation.
Occasionally, heterochromia can be a sign of a serious medical condition. A common cause in females with heterochromia is X-inactivation , which can result in a number of heterochromatic traits, such as calico cats. Trauma and certain medications, such as some prostaglandin analogues , can also cause increased pigmentation in one eye. Although people with lighter eye color are generally more sensitive to light because they have less pigment in the iris to protect them from sunlight, there is little to no evidence that eye color has a direct impact on vision qualities such as visual acuity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Polygenic phenotypic character. For the shade of purple, see Iris color. For other uses, see Brown eyes disambiguation. This section may contain misleading parts. Please help clarify this article according to any suggestions provided on the talk page. For other uses, see Blue eyes disambiguation. Main article: Aniridia. Main article: Heterochromia iridum.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Pigment Cell Res.
PMID Eye Res. Biochromy: Natural Coloration of Living Things. University of California Press. ISBN CiteSeerX S2CID Journal of Physical Chemistry.
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